Report Chapter

Air Policy

In Global Environment Outlook - GEO-6: Healthy Planet, Healthy People (Chapter 12)
Editor: 
United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP)
Author: 
Frederick Ato
ARMAH
Phillip
DICKERSON
Christina
GUERREIRO
Terry
KEATING
Oswaldo
DOS SANTOS LUCON
Asami
MIYAZAKI
Amit
PATEL
Stefan
REIS
Kari
DEPRYCK
2019-03

The composition of Earth’s atmosphere is one of the major
determinants of a healthy planet, influencing the climate,
ecosystems and human health. This is highlighted by the
existence of a direct or indirect link between the challenges of
air pollution, climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion,
persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals and
each of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (United
Nations 2015).
A plethora of international, national, subnational and regional
policies have been deployed to address these challenges. The
fundamental forms include:
i. technology or emissions standards, commonly referred to
as ‘command and control’;
ii. planning regimes;
iii. market interventions;
iv. public information; and
v. cooperative forums, including international agreements.
The various policy instruments that are used in each of these
approaches are discussed in the following sections along
with a case study to illustrate each approach. Key features of
each case are highlighted using the methodology described in
section 10.6. The case studies are selected from a diverse range
of geographical contexts, spatial scales and implementation
time frames. The case studies are not intended to be all
encompassing, but highlight the context-specific nuances,
generic patterns and issues that require attention from relevant
stakeholders to elicit better policy outcomes. They are not
intended to be replicable without considering the local context.

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